Google Chrome was once the best browser available. Then Google decided to make money off of everyone using it so it ended up getting loaded down with bloatware and trackers that can't be disabled. In spite of this, it remains the most widely used browser on the planet.
There ARE infinitely superior options out there. I'm going to go one at a time, starting with my top pick and working my way down. As far as add-ons/extensions are concerned, the fewer you have installed on your browser of choice the more secure you are. The only browser add-ons/extensions I recommend are uBlock Origin, Privacy Badger (works similar to uBlock Origin but it never hurts to have redundancies in place "just in case"), ClearURLs (for Firefox, this is unnecessary on Brave), and Facebook Container (for Firefox).
There are hardening guides out there that articulate the steps better than I ever could. For reference, I recommend Techlore's videos on some of these browsers for further details.
NOTE 1: As explained in "Android vs iPhone," as of this writing all browsers running on iOS are based on the open source Webkit engine. Browser developers have made their iOS apps function just like their original versions. While most browsers below are also available on iOS, when I say something is based on a certain other engine it's generally for Windows, Linux, and Android.
NOTE 2: iOS does not have "Nightly" or "Canary" versions of certain browsers.
NOTE 3: On Android, download FFUpdater through F-Droid. You can get most of the below browsers off of that app and downloaded directly from the open source repositories.
If you're already using Google Chrome and want to switch, then Brave will be nothing but familiar to you and just as fast as Chrome used to be if not faster. Brave, like Chrome, is based on the Chromium browser (it might also be owned by Google but it is open source). Founded by Brendan Eich (one of the founders of Mozilla), Brave's emphasis is on both privacy and security and only needs some mild hardening once it's installed. There are also "Beta" and "Nightly" versions of Brave available if you want to test out the latest and greatest features before the official release.
Vivaldi is another Chromium-based browser with an emphasis on not only privacy and security but also functionality. No, Vivaldi is not fully open source but they have valid reasons for that. What it lacks in total transparency it more than makes up for in functionality and I thus have added it to this list. There is also a "snapshot" version of Vivaldi available, but you'll only be able to install either stable or snapshot on Windows (you can install both on Linux, Android, and as of 10/12/2023 iOS via the Testflight app).
These are based on Mozilla's Gecko engine. Once fine tuned they can be the most private and secure browser you could ever install, and that's even without installing Arkenfox on desktop Firefox (Librewolf is basically Arkenfox-enabled Firefox). The reason I put all these in one spot is, even on Android, the Gecko browsers all run identical to one another and you can even install add-ons on the Android versions (I still recommend only uBlock Origin and Privacy Badger). Firefox also has Beta and Nightly versions, and you can even install "burner browsers" called Firefox Focus/Firefox Klar, and recently a "Beta" version of Firefox Focus came out and is available on FFUpdater. Recently, The Guardian Project partnered with Mullvad VPN to create Mullvad Browser, which is basically Tor Browser without Tor but integrates with Mullvad VPN. Iceraven can be automatically updated via FFUpdater, as there isn't even an F-Droid repo for it.
Cromite/Mulch (both on Android only)
These are two more Chromium-based browsers with an emphasis on privacy. Both Mulch and Cromite are forks of the no-longer-maintained Bromite and, apart from the icons, are practically identical to one another. Bromite hasn't been updated since December 2022 so if you're using it, stop.
Tor Browser (not available on iOS, but the Guardian Project does recommend a third-party app called Onion Browser)
A Gecko-based browser that gets you onto the Tor network. It is NOT recommended to change any settings aside from the Security one to either "Safer" or "Safest." It is NOT recommended to install any additional add-ons to Tor Browser, as more add-ons will just fingerprint you. It is NOT recommended to maximize the window on the desktop version, as that would also fingerprint you. There is also an Alpha version of Tor Browser available on Android.
The publicly available version of Chromium will still insist on phoning home to Google. It's just as bad as Chrome. Stick with Brave, Vivaldi, Cromite, and Mulch.
Honorable mention goes to the CalyxOS verison of Chromium. Prior to an update it was based off of official Chromium but since looks like a fork of the discontinued Android version of Ungoogled Chromium. The reason it's an honorable mention is because it's only available on CalyxOS.
Just FYI, I've looked into both IceCat and PaleMoon. IceCat hasn't been updated in a few years and is practically abandonware. PaleMoon lacks support for uBlock Origin, which is a must in my opinion. Use those two browsers at your own risk.